The dictionary defines a career woman as: "woman is a woman with a career who is interested in working and progressing in her job, rather than staying at home looking after the house and children"
Then, what's a woman with a career? I can't seem to find the official definition online - I'd contend that the definition would go something like this: "A woman who is primarily focused on the home and family as her priority, regardless of how successful she may be in her job/career. She prioritizes love, relationships, the family unit above her career.
I'd also modify the official versions of the definitions of a career woman to go more like this: "A woman who is primarily focused on the success of her job/career, over that of the home and family". She is driven and motivated by her own success.
There have been dozens of articles and blog posts about career women - and the fact you ought to avoid these kinds of women, such as: http://www.slate.com/id/2148274/. A lot with strong language about how career women are divorce prone or unable to prioritize in their roles as women first (implying a woman's role is centered around the family and home).
Personally, I tend to agree. If you were to ask me which one I am... I'd say I am a woman with a career. I am passionate for the happiness of those around me (myself included, my family, friends, etc...). A woman (in general) is built to thrive on giving and receiving love - on feelings of want and being needed and appreciated. It is what it is. Women and men = we are different.